Construction Watch: Toronto Condo Boom

Things are looking up in Toronto. There are approximately 150 high-rise buildings under construction in Toronto, more than anywhere else in North America. The Toronto Census Metropolitan Area (CMA) condominium market set several records in 2012 including: construction starts (24,388), active developments (355), total active units (89,251), and total units under construction (56,866) according to Urbanation, Canada’s leading condominium market research company.

 
 
In the Toronto CMA there were 17,997 new condominium units sold in 2012, between the five-year CMA average of 20,119 annual sales (2007 to 2011) and the ten-year average of 17,139 annual sales (2002 to 2011), but down from the record breaking pace set in 2011.  The active Toronto CMA new condominium market is 79% sold overall, down from 80% sold in Q3-2012 and 82% sold in Q4-2011, but above the ten-year average of 78%.
The average sold index price in the Toronto CMA was $536 psf in Q4-2012 (up 5.2% from Q4-2011), while unsold suites were being offered at $568 psf on average in the fourth quarter.

urbantoronto-6915-22991.jpg

“Despite concerns over the level of unsold supply in the new condominium market, the ratio of sold to unsold units has consistently been above the long-run average in recent years” says Ben Myers, Urbanation Executive Vice President. “There remains confusion over unsold supply and standing inventory, to clarify, at the end of Q4-2012 there were just 613 completed and unsold new condominium apartment suites in the Toronto CMA – some would be rented out by the developer, some used for construction offices, and others used as model suites for subsequent phases, effectively lowering this standing inventory figure even farther”.
Overbuilding was a term cited quite often in relation to the Toronto condominium market in the second half of 2012, however, a survey of developers, lenders and brokers conducted by Urbanation in December indicated that just 11% of respondents indicated that over supply in the new condominium market was their top concern going into 2013.

urbantoronto-6922-23013.jpg

The resale condominium market suffered from a lack of supply in Q4-2012, as just 3.2% of the 227,700 units (1,285 buildings) tracked by Urbanation were listed for sale in the fourth quarter, the lowest quarterly level in over 10 years. Resale activity declined 14% quarterly in the Toronto CMA to 2,941 transactions. Despite the decline in resale units traded, the Sales-to-Listings ratio increased quarterly to 40.2%, indicative of relatively balanced market conditions.
“Many investors chose to hold and rent their units in 2012 rather than sell them into uncertain market conditions” adds Myers. “This is contrary to the theory that condominium unit holders will panic and sell their suites at significant discounts during a softening market”. 
Overall, 15,292 resale condominium apartments traded in 2012, down from the five-year average of 15,609, but above the ten-year average of 13,486. 
Urbanation is forecasting 14,500 resale condominium transactions in 2013 and 17,000 new condominium sales in the Toronto CMA. 53% of respondents to Urbanation’s industry questionnaire expected between 17,500 to 20,000 new condominium sales in 2013, while 42% expected sales between 14,000 and 17,500.
Photos by UrbanToronto

About the author  ⁄ WCPerspective

Buffalo and development junkie currently exiled in California.

71 comments
The Boss
The Boss

"Little job variety, taxes, and weather culminate into despair" well buffalo boy Toronto, NYC, Boston and Chicago all have high taxes and bad weather so pretty much leaves with just jobs

bung
bung

Our problem is the Buffalo suburbs and beyond they keep building homes and expanding infrastructure even with decades of population loss and eroding tax base. Sprawl without population growth spending 10’s of millions of dollars for a school expansion while mothballing schools 10 miles away. Which is devaluing the housing stock and upping property taxes. Buffalo west side is one of the only bright spots in the area with noticeable increasing housing values especially in the last five years. Here you can buy a home for $300k or go 6 blocks away and buy one for the price of a used car.

Frank Grimes
Frank Grimes

True, the condo market could be in line for a correction, but I doubt it would be a crash because investors in this context means people looking to own rental properties, and not necessarily looking for a quick flip. Also, ownership rules in Canada are tighter (and have tightened in recent years), with stricter background checks, minimum down payments, mortgages are insured and subprime mortgages are extremely rare.

The City of Toronto is growing by 50,000 people per year, the region by 100,000 people. Not all of those people want to or can own their homes, leading to a shortage of rental properties, and condos are filling that gap. Toronto's condo market differs from Florida's housing market because it's a response to rapid population and economic growth, not the cause of it, which Florida's seems to have been with its pyramid scheme housing market.

Still, I don't want to defend condo towers too much because there are serious problems with them - the quality seems to deteriorate every year, the size and exterior design aren't always in line with the neighbourhood or even necessarily nice to look at. So it's not necessarily a great model for city growth, but I just don't see it as a real estate bubble.

bung
bung

Your link sounds like a page form the Florida real estate market 2007.

“Condo investors own an estimated 30 to 95 per cent of units (depending on the building) in the newer high-rises cluttering the Toronto skyline. And they are finding a line-up of potential renters at their doors. And with the bulk of condos sold during the recent boom unlikely to actually be built for another three to five years, competition could remain intense for some time.”

“Condo investors” own 30-95% of the units. Most are not even built yet the rights to own one of these units not built yet will be sold several times before they get built in this real estate frenzy. When the music stops the investor holding the bag won’t be able the rent or sell to cover the cost of the unit when it finely gets built.

biniszkiewicz
biniszkiewicz

Toronto attracts 100,000 immigrants per year (!!). In all the world only one major city has a higher percentage of foreigners (Miami).

Canada has a loose immigration policy which allows anyone with sufficient resources to settle. If you have money, live in Asia, want to come to a stable western country with a great standard of living and the rule of law, Canada would be very appealing. And if you were headed to Canada, where else would you want to go, really, except maybe Vancouver? Montreal and Quebec are nice, but not as Cosmopolitan, their economies are comparatively sluggish and they're even colder.

Frank Grimes
Frank Grimes

Everyone is waiting for a crash of the Toronto condo market, but it's a little different than a housing bubble because Toronto is growing fast, and those condos, even bought as investment or rental properties, are easy to rent out. In fact, the city is growing so fast that they're not building rental properties fast enough, meaning we're now seeing bidding wars for _renting_ condos. So as long as people hold onto them and rent them out instead of selling in a panic, the market could stay somewhat steady.

http://www.thestar.com/business/real_estate/2012/11/07/rental_condos_new_biddingwar_battleground.html

Getting around is rough, though, unless you live in or near downtown and can either take transit or bike (or walk) to work. The city (and other levels of govt) have to get their act together to keep the place running - there's a proposal for three 80-story condo towers across the street from where I work. It's an idea that striks me as slightly insane without considerable infrastructure improvements in the area.

Frank Grimes
Frank Grimes

Just a comment about Toronto's "spiraling gun violence". Last year the city had 54 homicides, which in a city of 2.8 million makes it one of the safest big cities in the world. But you're right about the other problems you mention. Congestion is rough as the city's public transit has not kept up with its growth, and social problems are increasing as the downtown booms but some suburbs - cut off from transit and thus jobs - find themselves falling behind the rest of the city.

sonyactivision
sonyactivision

T.O. is evolving into a World City. The amount of immigration there is what's staggering, even while the region's economy isnt exactly in a boom. Much like NYC it's Canada's front parlor. I just don't think there's many lessons for Buffalo aside from preserving as much historic stuff as possible. Toronto's on a completely different trajectory, even if Buffalo were fully revived.

Hopefully Buffalo can attract visitors and interest from up north as it rebuilds so that the overall region can integrate further. Canadians usually go to Montreal to enjoy rich, diverse historic districts. Buffalo's closer so there's yet more reason to shine up the old streets.

5to81ALLDAY
5to81ALLDAY

OH NO! Cars and people line the streets downtown. Please not in Buffalo!

Andrew
Andrew

I was right around the corner at 401 Calle San Francisco in Plaza Colon. Yes the quality of buildings is admirable; reminds me of Europe. I stayed in a hotel in Italy once that must have been hundreds of years old and I asked the owner if it was a lot of work keeping everything standing and they said, "It's been standing 500 years, it'll stand 500 years more" My hotel made me think of that.

benfranklin
benfranklin

Stayed at 401 Sol (across from the Abraham Lincoln School) ...where were you?

The construction is far more permanent than what we put up here. It was very interesting to see what's being rehabbed, next to a property that may have been empty and in disrepair for a hundred years.

Andrew
Andrew

I was in Old San Juan from the 14th - 18th too!

JSmith
JSmith

I am not a big fan of the cookiecutter condo towers that have sprouted all over Toronto's waterfront, but I will say this for Toronto: they have managed to site those highrises in a way that still feels you are in a city, unlike what we have done with our waterfront condos.

Compare Queens Quay south of the Gardiner to our version west of the 190. It seems (correct me if I'm wrong) that Toronto must have had a planning department carefully guiding the redevelopment of these areas, whereas in Buffalo we just let developers buy a big plot of land and accept whatever site plan they propose for it.

sonyactivision
sonyactivision

It's a classic suburb and anyone driving on the 401 at rush hour is probably not so enthusiastic about Missy's growth...

r-k-tekt
r-k-tekt

The growth in Toronto is staggering. I have been travelling back and forth regurally for 13 years and the city looks totally different today. Along the Gardiner adjacent to Skydome and a golf course 2 condos were being constructed as part of City Place. Today the golf course is gone and over a dozen high rise buildings and 2 dozen low rise buildings stand.

The once abandoned Maple Leaf Garden is now the athletic complex for Ryerson University and a spectacular Loblaws.

The City is quickly losing its character though. Streets like Charles and Isabella just south of Bloor reminded me of Summer St or North Street here in Buffalo. Rapidly though low rise buildings and houses are being replaced by 30 storey glass towers.

It is still an exciting city though and timed right...only two hours from the safe, sane and affordable confines of Buffalo.

Quinn
Quinn

"When was the last time all the culturals got together for 1 meeting to discuss how to expand history, culture, literacy, etc."

You are incorrect. The culturals are organized and meet often. See -

www.asiwny.org

www.greaterbuffaloculturalalliance.com

www.theatreallianceofbuffalo.com

Very organized and very smart organizations that coordinate and conference cultural issues.

paulsobo
paulsobo

Unless Buffalo changes its mindset, all of Buffalo's uniqueness will be demolished with continued growth just as it has been for the last 80 years

Buffalo needs to consider where new downtown Buffalo could grow unfestered. The only area where Buffalo could create a new downtown is either to the east like the Central Terminal or to the South like First Ward.

The mentality that Buffalo has right now...if Trump came to Buffalo and wanted to build a 100 story highrise...on a demolished Prudential or a demolished Lafayette Hotel or a demolished Statler or St Louis Church (aka our historical downtown jewels) no politician or developer would stand against it.

Sure we are cannabilizing our charm as we are shrinking but can we protect our charm if we start growing again?

Buffaboy
Buffaboy

I think Buffalo is a real city...but with an overwhelming sense of despair. Little job variety, taxes, and weather culminate into despair; we must recognize T.O. is inundated with prosperity and we arent so they achieve growth. Opening pic: Buf in 50 Yrs

No_Illusions
No_Illusions

No one here is claiming that... it would be miraculous if Buffalo ever breaks the top 20 again.Also did Yonkers become a city? Because last time I checked Buffalo is still number 2 in NYS. To be fair the Rochester Metro population is growing and could very easily eclipse Buffalo's in the next decade or two.

townline
townline

No he meant oil, and he's right about that. He's just wrong about everything else.

townline
townline

1 - yes, there are projections that we are going to increase our supply, but that was not my point. Despite the increase in supply future oil is still going to be significantly more expensive. Traditional oil extraction methods are the most economical, by far. Even to import. The USA's projected increase in supply is going to be largely the result of hydrofracking (a practice that may not grow as large as some project) which is typically several times more expensive than a traditional oil well.

2 - are you suggesting that 20 years is a long ways away? In the context of development, a 20-year period is a blip on the radar.

3 - alternative energy sources and electric vehicles will help, but there is no solution that comes remotely close to supplying the volume of energy that we presently consume for a similar price. Electric cars, for example, are efficient when less than 1 percent of our population own one. But imagine the strain on our existing power grid when even 25 percent of our population suddenly needs to charge their vehicle. That would require a complete overhaul of our energy infrastructure costing trillions of dollars.

There is no energy source projected to be affordably available that will have the possibility of reducing our dependence on petroleum-based vehicles substantially enough to off-set our increase our costs for oil, at our current rates of energy consumption.

There is so much focus on alternative energy when the real solution is reducing our dependence on energy in general. Fundamentally, that means we have to build smarter.

defender110
defender110

Living in Toronto one has to be amazed with the proliferation of condo towers and synergy on the streets but Toronto has indeed lost its charm , stagnant traffic, spiraling gun violence and inner suburb ghettos. I must plan any car trip in the city according to rush hour times( perpetual) and avoid the inundated and inadequate public transport which is hemorrhaging under the pressure of the new condo population . I do love Toronto but it has loss uniqueness and has become somewhat stressful and frighteningly expensive to live in ; and with the unending new builds generated by speculators and wannabee new landlords , I fear Toronto is ripe for quite a correction. Buffalo is NOT Toronto and could never be for Toronto is the financial, population and immigration hub of the whole country , whereas, Buffalo is the third largest city in a state in country of 50 states. I visit Buffalo often and truly see it going in the right direction now and really has character and charm which is resurrecting itself after many years of neglect and indifference . I think a city that works and has a uniform identity will lead to a successful urban fabric.

paulsobo
paulsobo

You cant expect people to just move back to our area or even those here to stay

You cant expect businesses to just come here and invest or even those here to risk what they have to invest

You cant expect someone from outside the area to save us

Buffalonians have to become something that others want to join and be a part of...

We can do it historically, culturally, through education, through various forms of business, etc...but we CANT DO IT BY:

-being historically ignorant

-being culturally ignorant

-having little civic pride, self esteen, dignity

-high taxes

-lavish big government and big government unions and big government as a minority employer of last resort

-buracracy

-working alone and independently because its to difficult to work together

Buffalo...the world isnt going to come to your door and knock if your doing nothing but scratching your rear and eating wings.

benfranklin
benfranklin

Spent last week in Old San Juan. Being able to walk everywhere, supporting local shops, really is ideal. I think it's part of the calming effect of going to such a place.

After ten days of not driving, getting to the corner of Sheridan and Millersport this AM, it struck me how dangerous it is. You drive everyday, you get used to people making left hand turns in front of on coming traffic. When you see it after being away for even a short bit...it looks almost suicidal.

We might be better off, in some ways, without the car. But for now, if I want to fully participate in my life, not having one is an impossibility.

No_Illusions
No_Illusions

Same reason that half of the NYC metro area's population lives outside the city limits?

No_Illusions
No_Illusions

Nope. If you didn't hear the US will be a net exporter of oil by 2020. We are at least two decades away from a breaking point. More efficient cars and oil extraction techniques have defied most peak oil predictions. A lot can change in those 20 years. Also as alternative energy cars become more common place, this will relieve the demand for oil allowing it to stay at consistent prices for the foreseeable future...in theory.

townline
townline

Yes, it will be a while before we completely deplete the earth's oil. But we're already into the era where it is becoming prohibitively expensive to harvest the quantities that we need to support the world's existing development. Regardless of how many new pipelines and techniques are developed, we will never again be able to obtain our needed supplies of oil as cheaply as we used to. We consistently hover around $4/gal... its only going to continue to go up as the eastern world rapidly develops.

It doesn't really matter when we're going to run out of oil, that's irrelevant. Its when will we no longer be able to afford it - that time is rapidly approaching.

bung
bung

Sprawl from population growth...

ranjekna
ranjekna

I wish we could learn from Mississauga. In 1971 their population was 156,000 now they are 713,000. How did they do that?

bung
bung

In a Buffalo News article a year or so ago Buffalo and surrounding burbs have over the last 25 years lost 15+% of its population while commute time while still short is up 50%. We still have too many people and politicians suck in the `70’s style government and another faction that the quickest way to prosperity is low wages, low services, and free parking for all.

ranjekna
ranjekna

Jobs. And part-time doesn't count.

paulsobo
paulsobo

I love the things people post on here. Should Buffalo have tall buildings. Torontonians should expand in Buffalo.

If they were going to expand why wouldnt they do it in Fort Erie, St Catherines, Niagara Falls Ontario as alternatives.

Toronto has lost most of its charm and character. Alot of Toronto was built during the brutalist 70s and the concrete loving 80s. I like it and Montreal but both have their own problems, as well as, Canada as a whole.

Truth is Buffalo could be doing 100%, 200%, 300% more but it wont because of patronage, unions, local minority control of the city, business control over the citys inside dealings and of course Albany.

1) Buffalo does have a bed tax for tourism, marketing and attracting jobs. Nearly all of which goes to the general budget and spent on other things.

2) Buffalo has far too much government but you wont here of rightsizing government in Buffalo Common Council or mayors office. For them, big government is a minority jobs program and patronage haven to assure their re-election.

(YOUD THINK in 2013 MINORITY POLITICS WOULD BE DIFFERENT THAN 1900 or 1950....guess again)

3) Working together. How many meetings does UB, Buffalo State, Niagara U, ECC, NCC, Medaille, Trocaire, D'Youville, Canisius, etc have together to create degrees specific to our area, create internships, reduce duplication of courses and degrees to they can better expand and complement one another.

(THERE IS NO TEAMWORK)

4) How many miles have we expanded Light Rail and how many additional Centers for excellence have we created? ZERO.

(THERE IS NO TEAMWORK)

5) It took a control board to get business leaders civic minded to care about our cities viability and how business friendly our city. Control Board is gone and where are the business leaders? Except for developers that want to build a hotel NOWHERE.

6) Immigration...it would be cheaper for NYS/NYC and downstate to simply export their welfare recipients here.

7) We have the Teddy Roosevelt Museum. When was the last time all the culturals got together for 1 meeting to discuss how to expand history, culture, literacy, etc. Build pride and self esteem through understanding the collective identity of our community. No albright expansion, no 1901 pan am museum, no presidential library's/museums, no fort porter, no civil war naval museum, NO TESLA museum in Niagara Falls, no museum of industry, no reconstructed boats in our harbor, nothing except a marginally reconstructed canal district (even that doesnt have much pressure toward historic reconstruction ... its been a canal themed mall of america from inception).

and the list goes on. Its exciting to see progress but our city once ran on 8 cylinders and today its practically pedal power. No one...who in a position of leadership wants to lead for the good of the city...its all about leading for their own interest.

HutchTecher
HutchTecher

I didn't see your second post which cleared up what you were trying to say. Sorry 'bout that haha.

JSmith
JSmith

A large chunk of the Gardiner Expressway was demolished 2001, and there is a study in progress to demolish another big portion from Jarvis Street eastwards.

tjhorner1
tjhorner1

HutchTecher, the thought isn't to build more roads, but that an increase in the population of the City of Buffalo would result in traffic issues, and that wouldn't be such a bad thing.

You said "These roads will eventually crumble. With an aging population in the burbs and interest in reurbanization, our focus shouldn't be on roads and boasting 20 minute drives. It should be on the city core, education, arts etc."

Yes, that is what I was saying, exactly....

No_Illusions
No_Illusions

Well its impossible for them to live here more than 6 months at a time without a visa so... However, we could easily see them buying more property in Buffalo as a second home. Buffalo just needs to market itself outside of sports and shopping. Buffalo could be a great weekend getaway, we should start offering theater and hotel packages, and yes while the selection of shows in Toronto is much greater, the theaters in Buffalo are cheaper. Also we could capitalize on the younger crowd as a hip party city. With plenty of great nightlife districts, super cheap drinks, and a 4 am last call, Buffalo could be a great destination for college kids looking to escape the hussle of Toronto.

Not to mention as more Canadian companies locate their American branches here there will be interest in buying property for visitors and company officials.

No_Illusions
No_Illusions

Um its going to be a long while before oil is completely exhausted. Besides even with the booming oil industry the arctic regions are still so little populated that their migration would be a drop in the bucket.

sonyactivision
sonyactivision

The Greater Toronto Area greenbelt which forbids development in a large swath outside the city contributed to this boom as homebuyers struggle to find housing in the suburbs. But these shiny glass condo towers aren't without their drawbacks:

http://www.huffingtonpost.ca/2011/11/14/torontos-glass-condos-fail-lifespan_n_1092119.html?ref=canada

Also, the condo boom which is generating 56,000 units this year, has run its course. Already Canadian Banks are placing limits on new lending, trying to avoid a Vegas-style bubble. Problem is, investors and speculators are crowding out actual homebuyers as prices escalate. There is an estimated 5 year supply of new condos in the pipeline.

tjhorner1
tjhorner1

You're right, it COULD be an indication of sprawl. I doubt it though. The city has dropped from 580,000 people to 261,000 people in the past 50 years. Many of those people, and have moved to the suburbs (completely normal in the US), yet we aren't seeing traffic problems, as our general population, as a metro region, is declining.

I can pretty much guarantee you that if the population of Buffalo got back to a realistic 400,000 people, an increase of 140,000 residents, that the resulting traffic issues would not be as a result of sprawl.

As a convenient byproduct, those additional 140,000 people would be paying property taxes, and would be working somewhere city or suburb, doesn't matter. They would indicate a growing region, healthy core, and a more robust economy.

There should be a strong initiative targeted towards growing the population of the city. A healthy core means a healthy region. If successful, it would result in worse traffic conditions than we experience today. As I said before, a good problem to have....

HutchTecher
HutchTecher

Yeah, theoretically that sounds like it makes sense, but in reality this has already happened in WNY with disastrous results. The stats from the 1 region forward meeting a few weeks back brought to light some interesting numbers. With hundreds of miles of roads being built, yet a dwindling population, all that is happening is that there isn't a strong enough tax base to support the infrastructure costs. These roads will eventually crumble. With an aging population in the burbs and interest in reurbanization, our focus shouldn't be on roads and boasting 20 minute drives. It should be on the city core, education, arts etc.

The Boss
The Boss

Bigger and taller is certainly not always better.Buffalo should look to Portland OR as a model of smallish city while still quite dense and urban. Austin TX is a little more spread out but another example of a cool small city that has a quality lifestyle. Both cities seem to put lifestyle at the forefront of many planning decisions.

The Boss
The Boss

ladyinwhite you better check your own spelling before calling out others...it is Fourth not forth

bung
bung

Toronto Condo market is sounding like Florida real estate market of the mid 2000’s Large investors are buying up whole floors of these condo complexes as there are being built hoping to make a buck and small investors are buying up individual condos to rent out. When you get enough people buying up real estate not to live in. While waiting for that big pop in value just to sell it at a profit. It may not be 2013 or 2014 but, it will all come crashing down if it keeps up, CMA is in denial. When it all comes crashing down is the time I’ll be looking for a Toronto condo. I stopped driving in Toronto years ago it’s always an expensive miserable experience. I take the bus up and walk or take transit anywhere I need to go while there, I’ll tri BIXI someday. At $5 per gal. and $12-$25 a day to park you would think more people would use transit. Yes, transit is busy it supposed to be busy to generate income to help keep it affordable unlike roads where the more busy they get the less efficient and affordable they become. Buffalo will never be a Toronto. Buffalo has become a whole lot better in the last 8 years than the last 30years before that.

LouisTully
LouisTully

What you described could be a result of sprawl and have nothing to do with business or population growth.

tjhorner1
tjhorner1

Some of the comments to this article crack me up.

If you're bragging about 20 minute commute times to anywhere, you should really check out Batavia....it's only 5 minutes there!!

It's my opinion that if, in 10 years, Buffalo has a tremendous traffic problem, and needs to build more roads, that is a GOOD thing. That will mean that the business and residential population is growing, and that the infrastructure needs to be upgraded to keep up with it. Along with that, will come an increased tax base, more investment into the community, and a FANTASTIC opportunity to mix new construction, and new great architecture, with the amazing architecture that we already have in place. Wouldn't that really be the best of both worlds? Prosperity and history, combined! If that's not our goal, what is?

For those of you that don't believe that the above would be a dream scenario, you are the reason that this region doesn't flourish. You despise change, and think that the best days for Buffalo are already behind us, so you yearn to hold on to the "good ole days". I'd encourage you to grab hold of change, and strive towards the belief that the best days of Buffalo" have yet to come. Knocking other cities for their growth, while touting the benefits of qualities that are present in many small cities, is not the path that will lead us to positive growth as a community.

As always, just my 2 cents....

LouisTully
LouisTully

"not nearly as charming as older buildings."

Of course, that would make it important for us to stop knocking down those old buildings. Even though those old buildings stand in the way of progress. Rather, that's what I've heard.

Up and coming
Up and coming

I visited a friend living in Toronto last year. I ended up missing my exit and it took me 30-45 minutes to drive about two miles. It was the worst traffic I've ever been in.

Jesse
Jesse

Yup. It's horrible that we don't have to pay > $500k for a 1,000 sq ft chunk of living space. Terrible.

Jesse
Jesse

Urbanization of the human population continues apace. Fact is, as oil becomes more scarce in the far north and west of Canada, not only the workers but all those in place to support them (coffee makers, toilet cleaners) will be moving back East... to cities like Toronto.

And, one suspects but one does not know for a fact, that Canada is more friendly to immigrants than America these days (truly sad, if true).

Let Toronto double in size, it'll only help grow Buffalo.

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